M6U2A3 Designing a Pre-Assessment for a Sixth Grade Classroom


  • Discuss the nature and purpose of pre-assessments.
  • Discuss innovative differentiation strategies.
  • Highlight use of computerized assessments that track learning.


The Nature and Purpose of Pre-Assessments

Students are never a homogeneous group.  The only way to cater to the learning needs of all students is to differentiate instruction.  However, in order to differentiate, the teacher must first be aware of what the learning needs are of each pupil and where they are at in terms of the knowledge and skills for the unit to be covered.  Pre-Assessments are basically placement tests.  They are tests teachers can use to evaluate what material to cover and where emphasis should be placed in instructing each student.  Pre-Assessments are therefore a necessary step prior to differentiating instruction within a classroom of pupils.  Although each student is unique, it may be possible to use the results of a pre-assessment to group students according to their knowledge or skills in relation to the unit about to be taught or being taught.  Refer to the mind map below for an illustration of such groupings.

M6U2A3PostPreAssessmentDifferentiationPlan cropped

LucidChart Mind Map, https://www.lucidchart.com/invitations/accept/a6f176be-7a6f-4aaa-828c-67a867b53102

Innovative Differentiation Strategies

Differentiation is really about making sure that each student is learning in their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).  Lev Vygotsky’s ZPD basically states that if the material is too advanced, the student will not learn, and if the material is too easy, they will not learn either but will get bored.  It is kind of like the moral of Robert Southey’s world-famous classic fable “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” (1837).  Unless the teaching is “just right”, learning will not take place.  Since each student is at a different place in their learning and have different rates of progress, the teacher must discover what is “just right” for each pupil and keep them within their ZPD.  Accomplishing this is no easy feat, but computerized assessments are an innovative differentiation strategy that can greatly facilitate individualization of learning so that each student can start where they need to and progress at their own pace.

Nevertheless, being innovative in classroom differentiation can be as easy as realizing that the teacher need not give all students the same content for an assignment.  For example, the teacher usually knows who are the advanced students in her class and who will likely finish the assignment long before the rest.  Instead of being caught in a situation where you are denying struggling students feedback and explanations that they need in order to occupy advanced or high achieving students, the teacher can plan for these students beforehand by giving them a more difficult assignment.  In this way, each student will be working on something that is equally challenging to them.  An alternative way to prepare for high achieving students is to give them longer assignments and require more complete and complex responses from them.

Average students are often overlooked by the teacher to the advantage of high or low achievers in a classroom (who are more often those who disrupt a classroom).  Teachers can fall into the trap of believing that average students are doing alright, and therefore do not really need much help.  Still, a teacher should ask oneself: “How much better could this average student be performing?” and “Am I challenging them to improve their performance?”.  Something as simple as grouping average students together can help them feel less isolated and ignored.  Students then work together and share ideas to come up with solutions.  Again, there is no need for the entire class to be grouped.  Only group those whose purpose is served in this way.  We all know the adage “two heads are better than one”.  This is no less true for average students, even if they are doing just fine academically: There is almost always room for improvement.

Traditionally, low-performing students probably benefit from the majority of a teacher’s time and attention.  The reason for this is obvious: they are the ones who need it the most; who are struggling to master the material.  Some of these students may even have diagnosed or undiagnosed learning difficulties, behavioral issues or mental and emotional challenges.  No teacher wants any of their students to “fall through the cracks” and fail to acquire the material.  Still, sometimes teachers are guilty of helping too much.  What I mean by this is that sometimes teachers need to work harder to convey the message that any sub-standard work will not be accepted.  This is a subtle way of conveying your belief in every student’s ability to do well.  Yes, allow low achievers more time to complete work.  But do not just do this within the classroom.  Have them redo both classwork and homework assignments as homework until they get the subtle message that their effort can make the difference between them spending one hour on homework per week and several hours on homework per week.  In my opinion, the teacher should remain objective and non-critical in their role.  Correct their work each time and give detailed feedback (preferably written and in person) to the student.  Then send them home to make the required changes and re-submit the assignment.  Students will soon catch on that they are spending more time than truly necessary on homework.

Scaffolding is another time-tested tool for helping make work more accessible to low achievers.  However, I caution that a scaffold should always be a temporary measure.  Make sure that at some point the scaffolding is removed and the student knows how to answer the question completely and to the level expected.  (Otherwise, they will never rise to the occasion.)  Students will need to practice assignments without scaffolding several times before they master this.  Again, redoing assignments (without scaffolding) can be a great way to help them to achieve this goal of independent proficiency.


Computerized Assessments for Tracking Learning

Returning to the theme of computerized assessments – both scaffolding and differentiation are far more easily accomplished using technology.  Some fantastic game-based learning platforms are the Khan Academy and Quizlet.  Khan Academy is one of my favorites and I recommend it to any Math teacher.  This learning platform truly allows for individualized learning and challenges.  In fact, the Khan Academy can be fun to play anytime and by anyone, even teachers.  Another computerized learning platform that I highly recommend is the game Kahoot!.  This game converts testing into a fun competition that the whole class participates in.  Below is a link to a Kahoot! pre-assessment I designed for my grade six classroom’s unit on Literary Devices.  https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/9e2a9405-3b08-4115-8257-fd365edf9516



Armstrong, Patricia.  (n.d.).  Bloom’s Taxonomy.  Vanderbilt University.  Retrieved from https://cft.Vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/

ESA Regions 6 & 7.  (2006).  On Target: Strategies That Differentiate Instruction.  Grades 4 – 12.  South Dakota Department of Education.  Black Hills Special Services Cooperative (BHSSC).  Retrieved from https://education.ky.gov/educational/diff/documents/strategiesthatdifferentiateinstruction4.12.pdf

Glossary of Education Reform.  (n.d.).  Definition: Demonstration of Learning.  Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/demonstration-of-learning/

Help Teaching.  (n.d.).  How to Write Good Test Questions.  HelpTeaching.com.  Retrieved 2017-06-28 from http://www.helpteaching.com/about/how_to_write_good_test_questions/

Literary Devices.  (n.d.)  Glossary of Literary Devices.  Retrieved from www.LiteraryDevices.net




M6U4A3 Blog on Teacher Evaluations


  • State what kind of feedback I would like to receive from my mentor.
  • Analyze at least two approaches to teacher evaluations in schools.
  • Propose elements I think should be judged in teacher evaluations.


Mentor Feedback

I would like to receive feedback that is specific and corrective from my mentor.  For example, her feedback should focus on areas in which I am being effective and ineffective, and provide concrete examples of how I could be more effective [1].  I would also like her feedback to focus on my error patterns, rather than on specific errors[2].  In this way, I can be aware of and look out for certain types of errors I am making.


Approaches to Teacher Evaluations in Schools

One approach to teacher evaluation in schools is the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS).  “The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) measures the impact schools and teachers have on their students’ academic progress”[3].  In other words, TVAAS measures student growth.  This is accomplished either by measuring their growth compared to their performance in previous years, or measuring their growth compared to peers (from previous years’ data) who had similar levels of performance as theirs in previous years.  It is a very complicated system, but translates into fairer assessment of how much a teacher has affected their students’ learning.  A criticism I have for this system is that the scores (e.g. 780, 220, etc.) are numbers that mean nothing to someone who is not familiar with the system.  I would prefer to see these numbers in percentage format.  Say, this student grew by 10% or 20%.  100% could be the figure for what is considered the maximum realistic potential growth of a student in a given year.  As such, it would theoretically be possible for a student to grow 110% or 200%, but this occurrence would be extremely rare and unlikely.

Office of. Assessment, Evaluation, & Research.

Source: http://slideplayer.com/slide/8048058/


Another approach to teacher evaluations in schools is the Ohio Department of Education’s Teacher Evaluation System[4].  This system also evaluates teacher performance through how much value they add to students.  Their Alternative Framework Model is my preferred teacher evaluation system because it not only is simple and clear, it incorporates various measures of performance (e.g. student surveys, peer assessment, student growth, etc.).  I love the transparency of this system as demonstrated in their relatively simple calculations that anyone can do.  I feel this is how a teacher evaluation system should be: simple, easy to understand, have clear inputs (measures) and be transparent.

Ohio Alternative Framework Graphic

Ohio Alternative Framework Measure Graphic

Ohio Alternative Framework Rating Calculation


Elements I think should be Included in Teacher Evaluation Systems

In my opinion, student surveys should always be included in teacher evaluations.  I came to this conclusion from watching the “Tough Young Teachers series”[5] that we studied in Teach-Now’s Module 4.  Some of the new teachers being tracked had no idea what they were doing wrong.  However, when the cameraman interviewed a few students from their class, the students were very clear and precise on what the teacher had been doing wrong – without being mean about it.  I was shocked to see how perceptive the students were and how simple it could be for a teacher to figure out what they are doing wrong so that they can then fix that by changing their behavior.  All the teachers had to do was ask their students.

Related to this point is the fact that if a teacher is good, their students should show this through their growth and progress.  As such, I think that a value-added component in any system of teacher evaluation is also essential.

I also believe that any teacher evaluation system should not be overly complex: simplicity is key.  In this regard, I like the Teacher Evaluation Smart Card presented by Charlotte Danielson’s Framework for Teaching[6].  This table or “smart card” covers many different important areas of teaching, without being overly cumbersome and complicated.  It strikes me as something that can be useful for a teacher to use on a regular basis.  Moreover, if a teacher is evaluated according to this table, they will receive meaningful feedback that they can then apply to improve their teaching.  After all, I believe that the purpose of teacher evaluation should not be to terminate the so-called “bad” teachers, but to get all teachers on the path to improving their teaching.

Danielson - Smart_Card_Color_20140819


Teacher Evaluations should Incorporate Meaningful Feedback and Research-Evidenced Techniques to Teach Teachers

If we as a profession believe that everyone can learn (even the most disadvantaged students), then we should extend this same comprehensiveness and assistance to teachers.  We should not hypocritically label a teacher as “a lost cause” without extensive justification and proof of failed remedial efforts.  Such remedial efforts should be consistent with the same research and evidence that we purport works for students.  If a teacher is doing something wrong, let us show them how to do it right (not just tell them or punish them for it in a draconian way).  Too often in the teaching profession we say: “teach this way”, “do this”, but no-one ever teaches teachers that way or does that for teachers.  Educational research demonstrates how all people learn, not just how children learn.  Most teachers want to be good or great teachers, but they just do not know how.  Teaching is a profession that most people enter because they care and want to make a difference.  I feel that we will have failed both our teachers and our students if we do not show the utmost level of care, support and patience to teachers and students alike.



Danielson, Charlotte.  (n.d.).  Framework for Teaching: Smart Card.  The Danielson Group.  Retrieved from https://www.danielsongroup.org/framework/

Glossary of Education Reform.  (n.d.).  Definition: Classroom Observation.  Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/classroom-observation/

Glossary of Education Reform.  (n.d.).  Definition: Demonstration of Learning.  Retrieved from http://edglossary.org/demonstration-of-learning/

International Baccalaureate Organization.  International Baccalaureate (I.B.) Diploma Programme (D.P.) Curriculum.  Retrieved from http://www.ibo.org/programmes/diploma-programme/curriculum/

Kamenetz, Anya.  (2015-01-22).  The Past, Present and Future of High-Stakes Testing and What Schools Could Use Instead of Standardized Tests.  Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2015/01/22/377438689/the-past-present-and-future-of-high-stakes-testing

MasterMinds, LLC.  (2001).  Effective Feedback is Specific, Positive and Corrective.  Retrieved from http://www.calhoun.k12.al.us/makes%20sense/Adobe%20Reader/DO%20NOT%20OPEN%20program%20files/Skill%20instruction/HOW%20to%20teach%20skills/During%20Tactics/SKILL%20Feedback.pdf

Ohio Department of Education.  (n.d.).  Teacher Evaluations.  Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Teaching/Educator-Evaluation-System/Ohio-s-Teacher-Evaluation-System

Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) http://www.parcconline.org/

Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium.  Regents of the University of California.  Retrieved from http://www.SmarterBalanced.org/educators/

Tennessee Department of Education.  (n.d.).  Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS).  Retrieved from http://tn.gov/education/topic/tvaas

Tough Young Teachers.  (2015).  Season 1, Episodes 1 and 2.  BBC.  Teach First.  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xq_mveIM8BM and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZtMB4vrr_4

[1]  MasterMinds, LLC.  (2001).  Effective Feedback is Specific, Positive and Corrective.  Retrieved from http://www.calhoun.k12.al.us/makes%20sense/Adobe%20Reader/DO%20NOT%20OPEN%20program%20files/Skill%20instruction/HOW%20to%20teach%20skills/During%20Tactics/SKILL%20Feedback.pdf

[2]  MasterMinds, LLC.  (2001).  Effective Feedback is Specific, Positive and Corrective.  Retrieved from http://www.calhoun.k12.al.us/makes%20sense/Adobe%20Reader/DO%20NOT%20OPEN%20program%20files/Skill%20instruction/HOW%20to%20teach%20skills/During%20Tactics/SKILL%20Feedback.pdf

[3]  Tennessee Department of Education.  (n.d.).  Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS).  Retrieved from http://tn.gov/education/topic/tvaas

[4]  Ohio Department of Education.  (n.d.).  Teacher Evaluations.  Retrieved from http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Teaching/Educator-Evaluation-System/Ohio-s-Teacher-Evaluation-System

[5]  Tough Young Teachers.  (2015).  Season 1, Episodes 1 and 2.  BBC.  Teach First.  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xq_mveIM8BM and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZtMB4vrr_4

[6]  Danielson, Charlotte.  (n.d.).  Framework for Teaching: Smart Card.  The Danielson Group.  Retrieved from https://danielsongroup.org/framework

M7U2A2 Reflection on My Three Lesson Plans

The purpose of this blog entry is to reflect on three lesson plans that I will be teaching in the coming week.  In this reflection I will (a) examine what I have planned and determine whether I could do more in these lesson plans to (i) integrate technology, (ii) build schema in my teaching, and (iii) integrate twenty-first century strategies into these lesson plans.  I will also (b) reflect on areas I may have overlooked in my lesson plans and how these could be implemented, and (c) areas where I believe I need more training and support and how I could obtain these (possibly with the assistance of my mentor).


Lesson Plan 1

In terms of my first lesson plan (topic: Dictation and Vocabulary), (a) (i) I have integrated technology by sourcing and displaying images for the vocabulary words that the class will review at the start of the lesson and for the ones that will be taught during the lesson.  This is simultaneous a way to (ii) build schema of the concepts in my students’ minds.  In addition, to further reinforce their mental schema, I will be supplying definitions and examples of the usage of the words and students will suggest examples that I will correct orally for all to hear.  Although I believe the images alone may be sufficient to cement the words in my students’ consciousness, we will also be doing a show-and-tell homework assignment where they will bring in an object associated with each word to show and discuss with the class.  This activity will further build schema about the word concepts.  (iii) This latter show-and-tell activity exploits the twenty-first century skill of knowledge building because students find different connections to the vocabulary word.  In addition, students are made globally aware because the vocabulary words are all sourced from the African novel we are reading in class – a novel which is autobiographical in nature and explains in detail the author’s childhood and life experiences in an African community.  (b) An area I feel I may have overlooked in this lesson plan is enhancing formative and summative assessments with technology.  To this end, I think it is important for me to find concrete yet innovative ways to instantly assess and verify struggling students’ understanding of the material (viz. vocabulary words).  I am hoping some of my cohort members’ reflection blogs contain some ideas on this because I cannot think of anything to use in such a circumstance.  (c) An area that I could improve upon is my application of the ‘stretch-it’ (elaboration) and ‘right-is-right’ (complete answers) techniques promoted by Robert Marzano (2007).  I am acutely aware of the embarrassment low-achieving students could experience when they are asked a question to which they do not know the answer.  I tend to be far too empathetic and feel this embarrassment for them.  As a result, I simply move on to another student rather than pressing them for the answer or to elaborate on the answer.  What I need to do instead is to remember to apply Marzano’s ‘no-opt-out’ technique where he allows another student to answer but then comes back to the first student to have them repeat that answer.  (Marzano attests that this technique allows the low-achieving student to feel some form of success when they finally are able to answer the question correctly.)  I could also explicitly state to my class that “There is nothing wrong with not knowing the answer.  What is wrong is not trying.”  I am also aware that I need more training in how to acquire ‘with-it-ness’ – or as I prefer to call it ‘teacher acumen’ (since a perfectly good word exists to adequately describe this concept and since learning and using this word will also help build teachers’ vocabulary!).  In reviewing my baseline teaching video I observed that I was not managing what was going on at the back of the class and that I often simply do not see students at that back of the class raise their hands.  I believe this is a skill that may be perfected with practice, but at least I am now aware of it and can try to work on improvement.  Nevertheless, I plan to establish some form of hand-signal code with my mentor so she can tell me when I am not monitoring all students well enough.  (She may actually need to call or shout out to me, because sometimes I do not even hear the students at the back or others calling my name when I am absorbed in explaining something to a student!)

M7U2A1 Lesson Plan 2017-03-01 1


Lesson Plan 2

In my second lesson plan (topic: Patterns and Algebra), (a) (i) I had not planned to use any technology.  However, on reflection, I think I could reserve and set-up one or two laptops with exercises from the Khan Academy for struggling students to practice the math concepts with and perhaps for others in the class to take turns on.  This second lesson plan is (ii) very heavy on schema building.  Patterns were drawn on the board and in notebooks, and manipulatives such as popsicle sticks were used to represent the shapes.  I think that an extended exercise on schema could be to use art materials and glue to build 3-D objects, (though I would only want to do this later on in this unit because it could complicate things).  (iii) In effect this last activity would also integrate twenty-first century skills because using art makes the math lesson interdisciplinary and creative.  In addition, the activity would then involve even more problem-solving and collaboration than it already did in their groups of four and pairs (the latter during the textbook exercise).  (b) Although I love mathematics, teaching math is more stressful for me because answers are usually either right or wrong.  I have a great fear of teaching my students something that is wrong or simply making a mistake and appearing incompetent.  This anxiety leads me to come across as more stern and standoffish than I really am.  I am not really sure what – if anything – I could do to change this.  I believe that the nerves I experience may diminish with more time spent in the classroom and once I gain more confidence in my new profession of teaching.  In terms of this lesson, I could have introduced the metacognitive strategy of self-regulation by telling students what they should be able to do by the end of the lesson.  E.g. “Students Will Be Able To:” (SWBAT).  In addition, I know that one of my weaknesses is figuring out how to plan better for low-achievers.  (c) Perhaps my mentor can model for me her interactions with such students during the lesson and give me some insights into how to do this while not ignoring the rest of the class.

M7U2A1 Lesson Plan 2017-03-01 2


Lesson Plan 3

If possible, I think I could (a) (i) successfully integrate technology into this lesson plan by pre-typing my poster and using a projector to display the example on the board, rather than just sticking it up there with tape.  It would also be good to source and display images to go along with and enhance the themes, quotes and connections discovered in chapters 1 and 2 of the novel.  (ii) On reflection, I think that I could find a better way to build the schema in this lesson plan.  A good exercise could be to use the initial posters as a draft and then have the entire class work together to make final decorated posters chronicling the themes through each chapter of the novel.  This would definitely help students remember the novel in its entirety and make sense of all the themes within it.  Another option would be to have the entire class work together to either create a mind map poster or an electronic mind map of the novel.  Pupils in this class are already familiar with drawing mind maps, but doing one electronically could be a fun twist to this activity.  (iii) Such an activity would require even better student collaboration and interpersonal communication, so I might have to give students some guidelines on acceptable ways to communicate things to each other and outline to them how to work together in harmony (also known as social competency).  This lesson plan involves extensive group work (collaboration) and skilled communication (creating a poster and presenting it to the class, and using various media) which are both twenty-first century skills.  I mentioned in the plan possibly making the groups into jigsaw groups (where each member is assigned a specific role) to ensure full participation of all members.  I recall that this method would also help students to develop and demonstrate leadership and responsibility, which are also desirable twenty-first century skills.  In this third lesson plan, (b) I know from beforehand that one of my greatest challenges will be time-keeping.  I will have only one period of forty-five minutes to teach my lesson, after which my mentor will be introducing them to and teaching a new topic in English Language Arts and she will need the entire next period to do so.  Being inexperienced in teaching – and tending to be rather ‘long-winded’ as a general rule! – I find it difficult to get to the grain of things and to explain things clearly and concisely.  (c) A strategy my mentor has already suggested is that she get my attention and point to the clock if I am running on or taking too long on a part of my lesson.  Unfortunately, this tends to fluster me and make me lose my train of thought, so I am now in a bit of a conundrum as to what to do.  (b) In particular, I know I have issues with classroom management during group work activities and may need more training and support on how to master this.  In this lesson, (a) I feel I may have also overlooked harnessing the power of some simple metacognitive strategies.  (c) One simple way I could do this in all lessons is to tell the pupils the purpose of the lesson (viz. to learn how to thoroughly analyze a text, pull out important parts, synthesize it and make connections to other texts and to their personal lives).  I could also get students to self-regulate by giving them a rubric to auto-evaluate their group presentation and peer-evaluate those of their classmates.  I would also love to have time to pre-teach students some metacognitive text scanning strategies.  I learned most of these in a speed reading class I took in university and they have been invaluable throughout my life.  Strategies such as the following would definitely help my students be more efficient in a limited time scenario when they need to scan a text and draw out the important or relevant parts of it to present to the class.  E.g. Scanning each line of text with your finger; looking for clues to meaning in word roots, word origins, prefixes and suffixes; taking note of words in bold, in italics or with the first letter capitalized; and reading the entire first and last paragraphs but then only the first and last line of all other paragraphs in the chapter.  Another useful strategy to teach could be to tell each pupil to take notes on the chapter assigned and then have group members commiserate and compare notes at the end.  (b) With my low-performing students (of which we have two in the class), I could try to prepare some leading or guiding questions on theme to try to scaffold their learning and improve their group participation.  It seems to me that more structured activities are easier to scaffold for this group of learners (e.g. the scaffolding in Lesson Plan 1).

M7U2A1 Lesson Plan 2017-03-01 3



Aronson, Elliot.  (1970).  The Jigsaw Classroom.  Retrieved from https://www.jigsaw.org/index.html

Bass, Jossey.  (2010).  Chapter 1: Setting High Academic Expectations.  In Doug Lemov’s Teach Like a Champion.  pp. 27-56.  San Francisco.

Carter Andrews, Dorinda.  (2014.)  Teaching Across Cultural Differences: Equity in Instruction and Classrooms.  Education Writers Association.  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSpAJk4yd9U

Cole, Robert W.  (2008).  Educating Everybody’s Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners.  revised and expanded 2nd ed.  Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/107003/chapters/Educating-Everybody’s-Children@-We-Know-What-Works%E2%80%94And-What-Doesn’t.aspx

Colorin Colorado.  Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners.  Retrieved Feb. 3, 2017 from http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/differentiated-instruction-english-language-learners

Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative.  (2017).  English Language Arts: College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading, Grade 6.  Retrieved on January 19th, 2017 from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/7/

Dean, C.B., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B.  (2012).  The Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies.  Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement.  (2nd edition).  Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD, p. xviii.

Edutopia.  (Dec 6, 2011).  How to Engage Underperforming Students.  Cochrane Collegiate Academy.  North Carolina.  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0H5XsZ1gzA

Edutopia.  (Dec 9, 2009).  High Expectations: Students Learn to Rise to the Occasion.  Faubion Elementary School.  Portland, Oregon.  Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=derUjqnlEzs

Equity Initiatives Unit.  (2010).  A Resource for Equitable Classroom Practices, 2010.  Office of Human Resources and Development, Montgomery County Public Schools.  Maryland, U.S.A.

Glossary of Education Reform, The.  (n.d.).  Backward Design.  Retrieved on January 19th, 2017 from: http://edglossary.org/backward-design/

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ITL Research (2011). “Innovative Teaching and Learning Research: 2011 Findings and Implications”, www.itlresearch.com

Knoster, Tim.  (Jun 15 2011).  The Nuts and Bolts of Preventative Classroom Management: PBIS in the Elementary School Setting (Classroom Management Strand).  Pennsylvania Department of Education.  Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.  Retrieved from http://www.pattan.net/Videos/Browse/Single/?code_name=pbs2011_tape11

Lemov, Doug.  (2010).  Teach Like a Champion: 49 Techniques That Put Students on the Path to College.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.

Linson, Michael.  (August 17 2009).  The Only Classroom Rules You’ll Ever Need.  Retrieved from http://www.smartclassroommanagement.com/2009/08/17/the-only-classroom-rules-youll-ever-need/

Linson, Michael.  (June 03 2009).  The Not-so-Secret to Effective Classroom Management.  Retrieved from http://www.smartclassroommanagement.com/2009/06/03/the-not-so-secret-to-effective-classroom-management/

Manley, Julie.  (n.d.).  Jigsaws: A Strategy for Understanding Texts.  Grades 6 – 8, ELA, Reading.  Retrieved from https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/jigsaw-method

Marzano, Robert J. (2007).  The Art and Science of Teaching.  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.  Virginia, U.S.A.

McLendon, Kelly.  (Apr 26, 2011).  Helping Low-Achieving Students Succeed.  Funderstanding: Inspiring People Who Care About Learning.  Retrieved from http://www.funderstanding.com/curriculum/helping-low-achieving-students-succeed/

McTighe, Jay.  (2012).  Common Core, Big Ideas 4: Map Backwards From Intended Results.  Retrieved on January 20th, 2017 from: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/common-core-map-backwards-jay-mctighe-grant-wiggins

Miss Wiebe’s Homepage.  (n.d.).  Teaching and Learning Strategies.  Retrieved from http://misswiebeshomepage.weebly.com/teaching-and-learning-strategies.html

Mrs. Holowicki’s Classroom Website.  (2016).  Mrs. Holowicki’s Classroom Expectations, Rules, Procedures and Consequences.  Brighton Schools. Retrieved from http://www.brightonk12.com/webpages/mholowicki/index.cfm?subpage=581663

Noonan, Madeline.  (n.d.).  SWBAT: Communicating Learning Goals.  Retrieved from https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/making-lesson-objectives-clear

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